Four Reasons Tomorrow’s Hotel TVs Will Be at the Center of the Guest Experience

Four Reasons Tomorrow’s Hotel TVs Will Be at the Center of the Guest Experience

By Richard M. Lewis

Vice President, Technology & Research

LG Business Solutions USA


Is the television you watch at home today like the TV you watched five years ago? Probably not. For one thing, 4K UHD has become the standard for medium-sized and larger TVs from every major manufacturer.1 And as of August 2019, the number of households without a traditional pay TV subscription was quickly approaching those that have one, with the number of households subscribing to traditional pay TV services expected to drop below 80 million by 2021. At that time, more than one-fifth of households will be cord-cutters, according to research firm eMarketer.2

That’s because TVs – whether at home or in hotel rooms – have evolved rapidly into something more. From a physical standpoint, in-room TV systems continue to get bigger and sleeker, allowing hotels to reimagine their guest spaces. But equally important, they’ve become two-way application-delivery platforms, giving hotels the tools they need to differentiate their in-room experience.

Today’s smart TVs are networked entertainment hubs, capable of handling over-the-top (non-cable, non-satellite) programming, hotel marketing and communications, and guests’ own preferred media. In the near future, it’s very likely the in-room TV – and not a separate smart room device – will be the integrated platform for controlling music, lights, climate settings and more.

Here are four in-room entertainment trends that hotels can expect to monitor in 2020:


Bigger TVs

The economics of flat-panel TV production have made ones that measure 49 to 55 inches (diagonal) the new standard for in-room entertainment, driven in large part by more-affordable larger screens in the consumer market. Some hotel brands have even standardized on 65 inches, and there are now hospitality-specific models as big as 75 inches.

For a while, there was a disconnect between the larger TVs going into rooms and the content they showed. In many cases, hotels were displaying older-format content on high-definition TVs. But now, most hotels have shed the old analog and low-resolution channels, which can be an eyesore on today’s bigger, higher-resolution TVs, in favor of all-HD content, taking full advantage of large-screen TVs. As a result, the in-room entertainment experience is equal to, and in some cases better than, guests’ home entertainment experience.

And with bigger, 4K Ultra HD TVs becoming the norm, hotels are seeing the benefits of mounting them on walls instead of on furniture or in credenzas. For one thing, mounting a 55-inch, flat-screen TV on a wall adds to the distance at which guests watch, which improves the viewing experience. For another, hotel designers can use the extra space to improve the interior design and increase guest’s comfort. Requiring less furniture to support the in-room television saves money and creates a more spacious hotel room.


Better TVs

In the past, dramatic improvement in foundational TV technology has often meant higher prices. When the first OLED TVs came out, with their stunning picture quality, it was understandable that hospitality brands, which may procure hundreds of TVs at a time, might take a wait-and-see approach. Now, with the growth of OLED TVs on the consumer market, LG is bringing more cost-effective OLED TVs to the hospitality market.

There’s also considerable innovation in LCD TVs with the use of tiny “nano” particles to vastly improve the quality of large TVs. These particles (each roughly one nanometer in size) absorb surplus wavelengths of light, which enhances the purity of colors on the screen while expanding the color gamut and ensuring consistent color performance from virtually any angle. Such nano TV technology is available now. Major hospitality brands such as Princess Cruises’ MedallionClass™ are adopting LG NanoCell™ hotel TVs both for their high performance and because their slim-profile design makes it easy to deploy thousands of in-room TVs in a single location.


4K Content

One way or another, guests will start to enjoy more high-resolution 4K content on their in-room TVs. Streaming services already deliver more programming in 4K, even though it may require five times the network bandwidth as 1080p HD. For various reasons, hotels are now adopting more Internet Protocol television (IPTV) in rooms, whether to support services such as Netflix and YouTube or to give guests access to hotel programs and information. As hotels build out the network infrastructure to support not only IPTV, but also reliable internet access for guests, pervasive digital signage and – eventually – network-based automation, control, and artificial intelligence, they will be able to deliver more 4K entertainment.

Even if hotels don’t invest immediately in the network infrastructure to support 4K entertainment, the 4K UHD TVs they’re installing today can still deliver a superior viewing experience. Most of the new 49- to 65-inch TVs that hotels are buying are now 4K UHD TVs. And the latest generation of 4K UHD TVs are better than ever at taking an existing HD signal and upscaling it to take advantage of the 2 million pixels for optimal viewing. Moreover, most 4K UHD TVs include technology called HDR (high dynamic range) that improves contrast ratio and color accuracy, resulting in a better picture even if content isn’t yet at full 4K resolution.



Today’s hotel-room smart TVs are really application platforms, so they allow guests to customize their entertainment experience. There are two primary ways people can bring their own media. The first way is to log into their preferred streaming accounts via the TV itself. Using their own, existing credentials, guests log into services like Netflix and Pandora to enjoy personalized programming. TV providers, hotels and technology integrators work to ensure the login information is secure and protected, and guests enjoy the same streaming media they’d enjoy at home.

Still, guests may not find it convenient or desirable to enter their login information into a hotel TV. Therefore, a second, emerging method of BYOE is beginning to take shape. “Casting” allows guests to take whatever they’re watching on their mobile devices and “cast” it to the TV, so it appears on the big screen. The experience is similar – guests enjoy the streaming services to which they already subscribe – but without the need to login separately.

For many, this could be the holy grail of in-room entertainment. Guests may decide that what’s on their smartphones is the only content they need during their stay, freeing up hotel operators to cut back on their investment in traditional programming and delivery. Some properties have successfully rolled out certain casting services. Google’s Android™ platform and Chromecast™ technology have proven effective. But as more mobile platforms introduce support for in-room casting, more hotels will look to enable their smart TVs to receive those streams.

And while all these trends positively impact the guest experience, TV technology is also evolving to improve operations. For example, as hotels adopt more smart TVs and build out their network infrastructures, software solutions like LG’s Pro:Centric® platform allow operators to manage and customize the in-room experience from a central location.

The TVs that guests watch today are not like they were five years ago. To a certain extent, they’re what hotel brands want them to be. The advantage of an Internet Protocol-based, open approach to hospitality entertainment is that hotels can develop solutions that best fit their needs and help establish unique, differentiated relationships with their customers.




Setting Up Remote Employees for Success

Setting Up Remote Employees for Success

Employers and businesses are facing new challenges with the sudden need for remote work capabilities. Communication, productivity and efficiency are all impacted, and employees working from home need specialized equipment that can both accommodate their home workspaces and replicate what they can access in their work offices.

Despite remote work increasing by 173% between 2005 and 2020,1 only 7% of American workers had access to a “flexible workplace” and only 29% of jobs could be done remotely before the COVID-19 pandemic.2

In February 2020, Cisco saw 22 times the amount of network traffic per second than normal,3 indicating the immediate shift to remote work. The ‘new normal’ has created a new need.

As employers establish and support a remote workforce, they can trust LG to provide high-performance business laptops, secure cloud endpoints, innovative display technology and video conferencing solutions to enable highly productive remote work and enhance remote and in-office collaboration.


See More & Do More with Widescreen Desktop Monitors

LG UltraWide™ monitors provide immersive viewing with an expanded 21:9 aspect ratio. A single UltraWide monitor with an ergonomic stand can eliminate the need for multiple monitors on the desk and the associated energy consumption, reduce hardware-related issues and provide a clean home workspace where the user can multitask with several programs or view multiple images and documents on one screen at the same time. LG’s IPS (In-Plane Switching) technology delivers crisp graphics and vivid color at virtually any angle.


Work Anywhere, Anytime with Ultralight, Ultra-Portable Laptops

LG gram for business laptops are the ultimate productivity tool for power users. Available in 14-, 15.6- and 17-inch models, plus a 14-inch convertible touchscreen tablet version, these durable, MIL-STD-810G devices measure just 0.7 inches thick and weigh less than three pounds – easy to grab and go just about anywhere. High-performance features include IPS screens, Thunderbolt™ 3, Windows 10 Professional (64 bit), 10th Gen. Intel® Core™ i5 and i7 processors, Intel® Iris® Plus Graphics, high-capacity RAM and SSDs, plenty of ports and long battery life.


Keep Data Secure & Productivity High with VDI Cloud Monitors

Whether you have team members working from a home office on secure tasks or working in a remote office on clinical diagnoses or communications, LG’s Thin Client and Zero Client all-in-one cloud endpoints can empower employees with cloud computing. Featuring crisp, IPS screens in a virtual desktop infrastructure, team members can access the applications and data they need to do their jobs. IT can provide support remotely, and vital corporate data is not stored on the device, but housed in your on-premises infrastructure or in the cloud.


Expand Communication with UHD Digital Signage

Easily video conference with remote employees directly from the conference room with LG’s digital signage content delivery and presentation capabilities. Select models of the LG UHD IPS digital signage displays are Crestron Connected® certified and Cisco Room Kit compatible for virtually seamless integration, automated control, auto on/ off and full functionality via Ethernet. Barco’s unique solutions with LG displays enable sharing ideas and content from remote participants (PC, Android™, Mac®, iOS®) onto a main presentation screen.


Power-Up Collaboration with Interactive Digital Boards

Enhance meeting capacity, increase engagement and facilitate remote collaboration with LG Interactive Digital Boards (IDBs) powered by webOS™ Signage. LG IDBs support multi-touch and writing functions, screen sharing and mirroring the display to participants’ laptops. With automation by Crestron, the meeting leader is free to focus on leading and managing the content and flow of ideas, while keeping participants involved with multidirectional communication and interactive participation.


The New Normal Can Bring New Success

Companies are increasingly looking for ways to connect, collaborate and accomplish heavy workloads with employees no matter the circumstances. LG is here to help you and your team be highly productive, in the office and remotely. With powerful LG business solutions, your entire team can accomplish more—comfortably, confidently and efficiently—from wherever they need to work.





Android is a trademark of Google LLC.

Mac is a registered trademark of Apple Inc.

IOS is a registered trademark of Cisco.

LG ProBeam 4K Laser Projector for Business Provides Immersive Picture Quality, Use-Anywhere Versatility

LG ProBeam 4K Laser Projector for Business Provides Immersive Picture Quality, Use-Anywhere Versatility

LG Business Solutions has expanded into commercial-grade 4K laser projectors to provide businesses with professional-level projection solutions that offer incredible brightness, sharpness, color accuracy, 20,000 hour lamp life and state-of-the-art functionality.

The new LG ProBeam (BU50NST) is a compact 4K UHD (3,840 x 2,160) laser projector that’s ideal for education, corporate and hospital environments. With up to 5,000 ANSI lumens of brightness and 3,000,000:1 contrast ratio, it delivers detail and clarity, even in brightly lit rooms. The immersive picture quality benefits both educational attentiveness and realism needed for virtual games, while offering highly detailed images necessary for corporate and healthcare applications.

Able to be mounted on a ceiling or table top, the LG ProBeam is well-suited for use in a diverse range of commercial spaces. In case you’re not able to mount the projector directly in front of the screen, horizontal/vertical lens shift provides greater flexibility in the placement of the projector by allowing you to move the image to the left or right (+/- 20%), and up or down (+/- 50%) without moving the projector.

A 1.6x zoom feature facilitates installation by easily turning a 100-inch projection into a 160-inch projection in seconds. Thanks to 12-point keystone adjustment and its extreme brightness capability, the LG ProBeam can project a minimum screen size of 40 inches and a maximum size of 300 inches (25 feet), providing 4K quality even at 300 inches.

For smart communication, you can share the screen and sound conveniently with wireless mirroring (Miracast®) and Bluetooth pairing. With webOS™ 4.5, you can connect to the Internet and explore using a Wi-Fi network. Wireless connection is possible with any Android device, and standard ports include USB and HDMI. With HDBaseT™ compatibility, the ProBeam can use a single, long-distance cable to carry up to five different signals for the transmission of ultra-high-definition video & audio, Ethernet, controls, USB and even power up to 100W.

In addition to providing brilliant images, the use of laser projection helps users manage long-term costs by minimizing bulb outages that interrupt operations and require expensive replacements. The LG ProBeam is rated for 20,000 hours of lamp life, with far less dimming evident over the life of the projector compared with bulb-based models.

Learn more about the new LG ProBeam 4K laser projector for business here.

Stay tuned. In the coming weeks we’ll have more projector news.

Understanding LG webOS™ Signage – The Platform of Possibilities (Part 2)

Understanding LG webOS Signage – The Platform of Possibilities (Part 2)

In our last post we explored LG’s webOS Signage, what it is and what it does. Today we’ll conclude with why you might want webOS Signage, and five of its key strengths.


Benefits for LG Partner Companies

Combining the computer processing and application execution into the display itself enables LG partners to harness the power of the webOS Signage platform for their own custom solutions, and even branch out into new markets with new solutions to expand their business portfolio. In addition to LG’s mainstream SM and UH series product lines that provide all the core features a commercial environment needs, webOS Signage is featured in specialty products such as high brightness outdoor displays, ultra-stretch signage and even Direct View LED (DVLED), giving partners the capability to run applications on a wide variety of LG displays. Partner apps built for webOS Signage can be structured as a cloud-based solution to update and show content, a hybrid with server, or totally offline with onboard storage. End users access the partner app functions via that app’s own management console.


Benefits for End Users

Working with a systems integrator, end users can choose an LG partner solution running on webOS Signage to simplify their digital signage user experience while enhancing its capabilities, and improving the digital experiences they offer their own customers. LG webOS Signage can work with digital signage across multiple business locations, whether across town or across the globe, with virtually no limit to the number of devices that can be connected. And with over 45 LG-certified partners in North America, end users can be assured of getting the right solution to empower their digital signage network for the best outcomes.


The Five Pillars of LG webOS Signage

1) Web-Based Standards

webOS Signage supports cross browser, utilizing common web standards including HTML5, JavaScript, and CSS. These One-Source Multi-Use (OSMU) HTML5-based apps can run on virtually any platform or device, and you can access your content directly from a device with a network connection.

2) Integrated Media Player

webOS Signage ensures fewer things to worry about in installation, management, and support. Embedded SoC eliminates external media players and related mounting hardware and cables, and can reduce costs/complexity, minimize failure points, and lower energy consumption.

3) Remote Device Management

webOS Signage provides tools for full remote control and visibility into the display resources (display & power, device management & monitoring, advanced file handling, screenshots). End-user access is via the partner app’s management console.

4) Interactive Applications

webOS Signage supports connection to external devices and sensors such as Beacon, GPIO, RFID, NFC, Barcode, Touch, Temperature, Light, Humidity, Pressure, Camera, and Printer, for interactive applications and environmental data collection to provide the best content at any given time. Voice commands and even audience measurement are now possible via partner applications.

5) Platform Security

LG webOS is equipped with UL Certification: Software Cybersecurity for Network-Connectable Products. It undergoes periodic internal penetration tests and processes for vulnerability management, and provides protection against outside access to ensure file integrity and network security.


webOS Signage Is Used Across Numerous Industries

Customers are using LG webOS Signage for QSR/Fast Casual, Corporate Communications, Retail, Healthcare, Hospitality, Sports & Entertainment, Transportation, Education, and other industries. The wide array of world-class supporting applications from LG partners makes it all possible.


Reasons to Believe

LG Business Solutions believes in putting the best foot forward for its clients. From a support perspective, a large portion of the new features brought to market are market-driven, and voice-of-customer driven. LG gathers all the pain points and requests from the market, and if a solution can be provided without having to incur additional cost for the displays, LG includes it. webOS Signage is a true platform strategy from LG – a ‘solutions-oriented enabler’ that empowers businesses for success.

Understanding LG webOS™ Signage – The Platform of Possibilities (Part 1)

Understanding LG webOS Signage – The Platform of Possibilities (Part 1)

The use of digital signage has proliferated across a multitude of businesses, for delivering targeted content to customers, visitors and employees. As digital displays become more sophisticated, they can enable innovative new features and functions to transform environments and further elevate the experiences they provide. And as the features and functions increase, so does the need to enable them across digital signage networks. LG has the solution: webOS Signage.


What is webOS?

webOS is LG’s powerful and versatile platform widely available in a variety of LG products that come with a display running with a smart component. LG consumer TVs, AI robots, watches, refrigerators and car infotainment systems, plus digital signage displays and Pro:Centric® commercial hospitality TVs,* are all webOS-based.


What is webOS Signage?

LG webOS Signage is a commercial branch of webOS that is used for LG smart digital signage displays. The platform is pre-loaded with native apps such as the subscription-based SuperSign™ Content Management System (CMS) and Signage365Care, plus a basic content manager and management console. webOS Signage provides content delivery and management without requiring an HDMI input.

Even more important, webOS Signage enables LG to provide Application Programming Interfaces (API) allowing for the development and use of third-party software applications by LG partner companies, in order to customize digital signage solutions for virtually any business and numerous industries. Through webOS Signage, these partner applications, including a wide array of digital signage CMS, run directly on LG smart signage displays. The process is made possible by an embedded System-on-Chip (SoC) processor within LG smart commercial displays (series SM and higher) running webOS Signage.


What is SoC?

According to Techopedia, SoC combines the required electronic circuits of various computer components onto a single, integrated chip (IC). SoC is a complete electronic substrate system that may contain analog, digital, mixed-signal or radio frequency functions. Its components usually include a graphical processing unit (GPU), a central processing unit (CPU) that may be multi-core, and system memory (RAM).**

Stay tuned. In our next post we’ll get into the benefits of LG webOS Signage for LG partners and end users, and cover the Five Pillars of webOS Signage and why they matter.


* LG’s Pro:Centric on webOS is a commercial branch of webOS for hotel guest room TVs. The Pro:Centric application environment provides extended customizable tools including HTML5, Java, and Flash. With these tools, LG systems integrator partners can optimize the full range of LG hospitality TVs and develop their own enhanced services. This increased control and customization provides premium hotel services to guests without the need for a set-top box. For hotels looking to retrofit their existing legacy TVs rather than purchase new TVs, LG’s Pro:Centric-enabled set top box provides all the same tools and benefits without the need to replace recently purchased TVs.


Join Us for an InfoComm 2020 Connected Panel Session: Topgolf Technology Transformation

On Tuesday, June 16, from 4:30 to 5:00 p.m. EDT, our expert panel will explore Topgolf’s major digital signage upgrade.

Topgolf, LG Business Solutions, Diem Digital and SAVI Controls have partnered to transform more than 50 Topgolf locations into the ultimate golf and entertainment experience using the latest in display and automation technology.

Watch the Topgolf project profile video below to see the technology transformation.

In this InfoComm 2020 Connected panel session, representatives from each organization will discuss how this game-changing partnership has enabled Topgolf to reach its business goals and provide its customers with a more fulfilling and memorable golf experience.

Plus, the expert panel will share thoughts on the evolution of automated commercial displays and how it has impacted the customer experience in entertainment venues.


Register Now for the Virtual Event

Check out this video to see the technology transformation:

Elevating Display Technology with Nano IPS

Elevating Display Technology with Nano IPS

Today’s use of desktop computer monitors is radically different from that of yesterday’s all-purpose passive display devices. Current uses have expanded into specialized fields, along with the technology of the displays themselves.

Many computer monitors use a liquid crystal display (LCD). Although LCD monitors are called by a variety of names, the technology is essentially the same in that the pixels need to be illuminated by an external light source. Today’s LCD monitors predominantly use bright, light-emitting diodes (LED) for illumination, and for that reason are sometimes dubbed “LED monitors.”


In-Plane Switching (IPS) Technology

LG’s IPS is an acclaimed LCD technology that dramatically increases image quality. The latest IPS advancements are the result of engineering breakthroughs that allow an exceptionally efficient transmission of the light source through the panel, and backlights do not need to be powerful and energy-consuming to drive the displays. IPS technology offers key advantages over conventional Twisted Nematic (TN) and Vertical Alignment (VA) computer monitor technologies.

IPS delivers a wide viewing angle up to 178 degrees, where color values and contrast are consistent, graphics are crisp and data is clearly readable. It also provides high-quality color reproduction for critical image evaluation, and the color accuracy remains consistent over long-term use. What’s more, IPS technology is stable and reliable—there’s virtually no image distortion when tapping or rubbing on the screen.


Nano IPS Enhances IPS Technology

LG’s Nano IPS™ is a next-generation LCD technology that combines nanometer-sized particles with IPS technology. The nano particles are applied to the screen’s LED backlight, where they absorb excess, unnecessary light wavelengths, realizing rich color expression for a wide range of content from single images and video to computer-generated imagery, at virtually any viewing angle.

Nano IPS monitors enhance color expression. They provide a wide color gamut covering 98 percent of the digital cinema industry standard DCI-P3 color space, and 135 percent of sRGB, which is ideal for expert-level creative work such as high-resolution image retouching with large amounts of color information. LG Nano IPS monitors are also equipped with VESA DisplayHDR™ 400 or 600, depending on display brightness, for bolder contrast between the brightest and darkest areas of the screen. With the rich and intricate color expression and better contrast, the color of digital content can become increasingly vivid and lifelike across various categories:

Movies – When details are lost in high brightness areas, lack of contrast results in a monochrome representation. Nano IPS overcomes this problem by rendering details even in high brightness areas.

2D Animation – In the bright areas, Nano IPS represents a detailed image, virtually eliminating issues with lost and blurry details around lights.

Gaming – Nano IPS provides a wide color gamut capable of displaying virtually every detail of the game.



It’s hard to think of any professional application that would not benefit from LG Nano IPS technology, no matter how you look at it. With Nano IPS monitors, professionals have exciting new equipment with which to work their magic.

Discover LG Nano IPS Computer Monitors today.

Eight Ways to Effectively Use Digital Signage in Schools

Eight Ways to Effectively Use Digital Signage in Schools

Digital signage is changing the game for communications on campus by creating a unique and integrated campus experience for students, faculty, alumni and visitors. And when you consider the education market, there’s probably a need for just about every type of commercial display, whether for K-12 or higher education. In fact, just about every area within a school could benefit by having digital signage. Here are eight places where digital signage can work wonders.


1) Make a Great First Impression

As students, visitors and faculty walk up to the school, greeting them with welcome messaging and school news headlines on outdoor digital signage is a great way to make a solid impression. And digital signs located in the lobby or administrative area can also serve to greet guests, entertain visitors in waiting areas, and provide a pleasing atmosphere while enhancing your institution’s brand.


2) Provide Dynamic Wayfinding

Interactive digital signs located throughout the campus are an excellent way to help everyone locate destinations and find their way around. And because digital signage is easy to update, maps and directions can be changed as needed. Depending on the location, both touch screen and non-touch displays can offer great wayfinding assistance.


3) Deliver Content Dynamically

The dynamic nature of digital signage allows you to display a multimedia experience that is far more attention-grabbing than a static sign or flyer. Placed in key common areas throughout campus, digital signs can deliver school news, promote events to boost attendance and support, display scheduling or class changes, recognize alumni or valued contributors with donor boards, promote personal recognition and highlight various achievements by students and faculty. This kind of signage can serve as the heart of the network throughout the school.


4) Promote Safety

In the event of an emergency, a digital signage network can be used to quickly push critical information and provide necessary instructions to ensure the safety of everyone on campus. A platform such as LG’s webOS™ Signage can allow content takeover on the entire network of campus digital signage, specific groups of displays or even individual displays, for real-time emergency alerts, health alerts, wayfinding, social distancing messages and more.


5) Facilitate Interactive Learning

Digital displays can support classes or lectures with high-resolution still images or video, and allow presenters to interact with the content to create an engaging learning environment. An interactive digital board (IDB), also known as an interactive whiteboard, is an ideal touchscreen solution for the classroom. IDBs encourage participation by providing the ability to write on the display, and the screen image can be mirrored onto students’ tablets and laptops.


6) Improve Faculty & Staff Communications

Documents and other content can be shared through digital signage, improving communication and collaboration, and streamlining workflow. And small digital signs located outside of meeting rooms can be tied into the scheduling system to highlight room availability and provide a brief outline of meeting topics.


7) Drive Revenue

From outdoor sports fields to bookstores to cafeterias and pop-up stands, virtually any digital signage display can help drive sales and increase co-op ad revenue with branded messaging and advertising.


8) Enhance Theaters

Whether it’s showcasing a lesson that captures the imagination with colorful content, or amplifying the energy of a live performance, a high-quality video wall or large indoor LED screen is a core technology for an auditorium, music hall, art facility, lecture hall or other large space in a high school or college.


LG Is the Right Choice for Education

From outdoor spaces and indoor common areas, to classrooms, theaters and meeting centers, LG Business Solutions offers digital signage to meet virtually any need. And the LG webOS Signage platform can serve as the heart of the entire network of digital signs, providing powerful multimedia capabilities and critical management tools, plus integrated remote management capability that allows monitoring and control of the webOS network. As schools adjust plans for technology buys to react to COVID-19, as well as budget conditions, standardization of technology can help reduce costs. Leveraging LG webOS Signage can help lower install costs and help reduce potential points of failure.


Learn about LG digital signage solutions for education here.